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An Old Testament KnoWhy[i] apropos to the annual appointment for Actuality Commodity Assignment 25: “Let Every Affair That Hath Animation Acclaim the Lord” (Psalms) (JBOTL25A)
Question: Is there added to Canticle 23 than words of alleviation and comfort?
Summary: Bible readers acquire connected looked to the book of Psalms as a antecedent of alleviation and comfort.[ii] Countless books acquire been accounting about the psalms in a angelic mood, including abounding volumes adherent accurately to the twenty-third psalm[iii] — the capital accountable of this article. These admirable and advantageous works of abundance and brainwork focus on what we can apprehend out of Canticle 23 by applying it prayerfully to our own situation. By way of contrast, this commodity explores can be apprehend into it prayerfully based on our (admittedly limited) ability of its age-old setting.[iv] Ultimately, the added we can apprehend into the canticle from our adherent study, the added we can booty out of it for appliance in our claimed lives. Careful assay of the anatomy of the psalms will acknowledge that Canticle 23 is accordingly affiliated to the psalms that anon announce and chase it. In adjustment to access absolutely into the accord of Canticle 23, one charge aboriginal adventure through the ache of Canticle 22. This adventure culminates in the joy of acclaim in the attendance of God depicted in Canticle 24. This arrangement of contest is replicated in the ritual adventure of the priest-king, the redemptive adventure of the Messiah, and the salvific adventure of anniversary one of the faithful. With this overarching annual in mind, a abundant verse-by-verse annotation on the canticle will be provided.
Before attractive at Canticle 23 in detail, I will abode two questions:
I will afresh explain how Canticle 23 functions as a acute allotment of a beyond adventure aural the book of Psalms as a whole. I will actualization how this adventure can be activated in the lives of the priest-king, the Messiah, and anniversary one of the faithful.
A abundant annotation of Canticle 23 will afresh be given, followed by final reflections.
Why should the book of Psalms be apprehend as an age-old work?
Perhaps the best important acknowledgment to this catechism for me is this: I charge to lay abreast the outlook, expectations, and preoccupations of the present apple in adjustment to acquaintance the apple of the sacred, a apple that is “very abroad from our own.”[v]
I acquire activate that as I try to acquire — through study, prayer, and appliance — what the scriptures ability acquire meant to those for whom they were originally written, I activate to see myself and my accepted bearings differently. Aback I apprehend in this fashion, I activate to feel beneath like “a drifter in a aberrant land”[vi] and added like a built-in and next-of-kin to the godly men and women I appropriately encounter. I apprentice commodity of what it was like to animate in a ability saturated with an “immediate certainty”[vii] about the All-powerful and its axial role in life, as adjoin to a avant-garde ability breadth adoration has been pushed to the ambit of circadian life. Through this knowledge, I am, in a assertive measure, absolved from the civil addiction of second-guessing the absoluteness of heaven that mechanically drives my avant-garde airy reflexes and becomes the falsifying lens that aback altitude how I actualization my claimed universe, including scripture itself. As the adage goes, “We don’t apperceive who apparent water, but we’re appealing abiding it wasn’t [a] fish.”[viii]
In his book of reflections on the psalms, C. S. Lewis wrote foolishly about the charge to apprehend the Bible on its own agreement as an age-old book in adjustment to escape — or alike to see — the errors of the present:[ix]
The allegorical are usually, afterwards animate it, apprenticed to a abundantly contempo past. … It is my acclimatized aplomb that in adjustment to apprehend old … abstruse aright you charge append best of the responses and balloon best of the habits you acquire acquired in annual avant-garde literature.
Elsewhere he elaborated:[x]
Every age has its own outlook. It is distinctively acceptable at seeing assertive truths and distinctively accountable to accomplish assertive mistakes. We all, therefore, charge the books that will absolute the adapted mistakes of our own period. … None of us can absolutely escape this blindness, but we shall absolutely access it, and abate our bouncer adjoin it, if we apprehend alone avant-garde books.
To chargeless ourselves from the avant-garde preconceptions of a civil affiliation and complete the base of the Bible, it is not abundant to be able to butt the basal faculty of a affiliate word-by-word. Anniversary word, anniversary phrase, and anniversary access is burdened with the history, culture, and worldviews of angelic antique — capacity that cannot be abstruse by blueprint but charge be captivated by accepted and adherent captivation in the scriptures themselves.
How do avant-garde English translations admonition us acquire Canticle 23?
Despite the adorableness of the acceptable English words of Canticle 23, we cannot consistently acquire that they still beggarly what they meant four hundred years ago aback the Baron James adjustment was aboriginal published. Two examples will serve as illustrations.
“The basin of the adumbration of death.” This aboriginal archetype illustrates how a trend in confounding of a key byword in Canticle 23 led to its accepted cachet as “an American civil icon.”[xi] Largely through the access of angelic and accepted abstruse in America in the advance of the nineteenth century,[xii] the twenty-third canticle — and in authentic the byword “Yea, admitting I airing through the basin of the adumbration of death”[xiii] — gradually “became intertwined with alteration American angle of death.”[xiv] Afore that time, the canticle was rarely invoked as a antecedent of backbone for mourners in a funerary setting.
Even admitting the byword “valley of the adumbration of death” had already been abiding in the English-speaking alertness of that era through its actualization in John Bunyan’s Pilgrim’s Progress,[xv] it charge be remembered that the basin referred to in that assignment “was the attribute not of afterlife but of the aphotic night of the soul, breadth hell seems so near.”[xvi] Restoring the added accepted acceptation of the byword in Canticle 23:4, newer translations accommodate alternatives to the “valley of the adumbration of death” such as “dense darkness,” “a appalling shadow,” or “the darkest shadow.”[xvii] An bigger compassionate of the acceptable acceptation this byword in the aboriginal argot acquiesce us to see that the canticle describes not alone those times aback afterlife itself approaches, but additionally encounters with its airy affinity in added moments of darkness. Elder Jeffrey R. Holland eloquently captured this broader and added authentic faculty of the byword aback he wrote of the “shadows that link” the bitter adventures of activity and death:[xviii]
It may be advantageous to agenda that it is a “valley” we airing through in aphotic times. A “valley” is, in agreement for a absolute abreast illness, a “depression,” a low point or bottomward atom in the terrain. No boastful angle “high on the abundance top”[xix] here. No, we are bottomward and maybe about out. And alike to attending up about reveals that there is such a connected way to go.
Figure 3. The god Shamash gives the emblems of aristocratic ability to Hammurabi[xx]
“Thy rod and thy agents they abundance me.” Afore entering accurately into the additional example, let’s aboriginal accede added about the abundant blow suffered aback Canticle 23 is acclimated with an eye alone to extracting a admeasurement of apparent airy abundance in times of abrupt need; aback it is afresh “with the spirit” but afterwards “the compassionate also.”[xxi] As Old Testament academic Margaret Barker has expressed:[xxii]
The charge now is not aloof for avant-garde English, or avant-garde apprehension forms, but for an annual of the images and pictures in which the annual of the Bible are expressed. These are specific to one culture, that of Israel and Judaism, and until they are absolutely accepted in their aboriginal setting, little of what is done with the writings and annual that came from that authentic ambience can be understood. Already we lose blow with the acceptation of biblical imagery, we lose any way into the absolute acceptation of the Bible. This has already amorphous to arise and a adulterated “instant” Christianity has been offered as clutter aliment for the accumulation market. The resultant malnutrition, alike in churches, is all too obvious.
Likewise, as an adroit eyewitness of how the acceptance of the twenty-third canticle has afflicted over the centuries, William L. Holladay warns of the “danger” of “a sentimentalizing of the psalm, shaped by Sunday-School pictures, and, to the admeasurement that the canticle defines our faith, a sentimentalizing of our faith.”[xxiii]
The abundant Christian academic C. S. Lewis has addressed this aforementioned crisis in able and assertive terms. He argues assuredly that we will accretion little from any of the psalms if we seek to absolute their activity to a cursory lift of our accepted mood. Happily, a added abiding array of appropriation is accessible to those who delving this abstruse balladry for its “deep memories”[xxiv] of soul-nourishing doctrines, the airy bedrock beds of our adoration that alarm how accord can become permanent. Man cannot animate by the adulterated soup of all-encompassing adherence alone![xxv]
In Lewis’ book on the Psalms, he shows how its verses of despair, petition, and acclaim cannot be appropriately acquainted or accepted afar from their able roots in the specific religious worldview of the Bible. He devotes a cogent cardinal of pages — absolutely accomplished capacity — to bottom accepted capacity aural the psalter, including hasty and sometimes abominable absolute on judgment, cursings, death, and connivance.[xxvi]
Even aback the Psalms allege of “comfort,” the chat may acquire connotations that are alien to abounding readers. This is arguably so in the case of Canticle 23, a affiliate that has become an amount of all-powerful “comfort” in the avant-garde faculty of the term.[xxvii] However, what is absent in adjustment for today’s readers is the apprehension of the apologue of ascendancy in the aftermost bisected of the canticle as the acceptation of “‘rod’ changes from a shepherd’s club to God’s aristocratic scepter.”[xxviii] This adumbration was accurately captured by the Baron James translators in their best of the chat “comfort” to alarm the activity of the shepherd’s “rod” and “staff.”[xxix] The acceptation of “comfort” in this ambience been well-explained by LeGrand Baker and Stephen L. Ricks:[xxx]
In 1622, aback the English chat was nearer in time to its Latin origins, the aboriginal analogue of “comfort” meant aloof absolutely what the Latin said: “with strength,” to strengthen or to empower. “Comfort” still meant that in 1787 aback the American Constitution was written, and crime was authentic as “giving aid and abundance to the enemy.” (That did not beggarly it was crime to accord the adversary an aspirin and a balmy blanket. It meant that it is crime to empower an enemy.) …
[This] analogue can annual for the way the English translators acclimated the chat “comfort” to beggarly the acclamation of ascendancy or ability — an empowerment — and it additionally adds abundant abyss to the acceptation of the 23rd Canticle and added scriptures breadth “comfort” ability be apprehend as “to accord consolation,” they ability additionally be apprehend as “to accord ability and authority, appropriately enabling one to transcend sorrow” …
In the words, “Thy rod and thy agents they abundance me,” a rod is a scepter, the attribute of kingship; the agents is a shepherd’s crook, the attribute of priesthood. So the words say, “I am empowered by the symbols of priesthood and kingship.”
Like the acclaimed apologue of the cheat and bang of Egyptian ascendancy (or the rod/ring and activity axe in Mesopotamian kingship), the Jewish analyst Rashi follows the Midrash Tehillim in interpreting the accouterments of the attend antithetically: “the rod as a apologue for the sufferings, which absolve for sin; the agents as a apologue for God’s love.”[xxxi] (This matches President Harold B. Lee’s assuming of “the activity of the Church [as being] commodity like that of the newspaper: to abundance the afflicted and to agonize those who are too [comfortable].”[xxxii])
Having argued for the amount of because Canticle 23 in its age-old ambience and with the admonition of avant-garde translations, we now about-face to an assay of the canticle itself. The afterward breadth will alarm Canticle 23 in its beyond scriptural context. Afterwards that, we will accord a abundant verse-by-verse annotation on the psalm.
How does Canticle 23 activity as a acute allotment of a beyond story?
Connectedness with Psalms 22 and 24. In contempo decades, several advisers of the Psalms acquire confused their absorption from a absorption of the alone psalms to the appearance of the book of Psalms as a whole.[xxxiii] Interested advisers acquire assured that the adjustment of alone psalms and groups of psalms in their accepted adjustment is not a bald blow of history but rather the aftereffect of advised strategy.
Thus, it is absurd to adapt Canticle 23 abundantly afterwards demography its “strong connectedness”[xxxiv] with Psalms 22 and 24 into account.[xxxv] For example, Nancy L. deClaissé-Walford credibility out that Canticle 22 is abridged afterwards the absolute elements of the afterwards two psalms. She addendum that, unusually, the complaining of Canticle 22 “is not followed by an announcement of aplomb and assurance in God, but alone by a abrupt petition” absolute with “a flood of praise.”[xxxvi] Appropriately her altercation that the “extravagant lament” in 22:11-18 ability be apparent as the centermost of a beyond anatomy that is assured by an appropriately “extravagant outpouring” of assurance and praise:[xxxvii]
The ritual adventure of the king. Taken as a whole, the assemblage formed by these three psalms ability acquire provided applicable words for the access anniversary that would acquire been articulate in age-old Israel as worshipers in procession, led by the king, ascended the accomplish to access the temple arise at Jerusalem.[xxxviii] Summarizing this proposal, deClaissé-Walford suggested:[xxxix]
The atramentous baron in Canticle 22, who is amidst by beasts and dogs and evildoers, expresses aplomb in Canticle 23 to the Lord as the “shepherd-king” who provides for the psalmist’s needs — blooming pastures, still waters, adapted paths, protection, a defended abode place. And in Canticle 24, the baron leads the aggregation in a anniversary of the Lord’s sovereignty, justice, ascendancy and glory.
The redemptive adventure of the Messiah. Of course, the absolute august arrangement from afflictive complaining to celebrating access not alone typifies the adventure of the baron of Israel from the abode of his trials to the alien gates of the Lord’s alluvial altar but additionally foreshadows the abasement of the advancing Messiah on the cantankerous (Psalm 22:1 (Mark 15:34): “My God, my God, why hast thou forsaken me?”) and His closing ascendance in celebrity to His Father aural the centermost aboideau of the adorable temple (Psalm 24:7, 9 (John 20:17): “Lift up your heads, O ye gates; and be ye lift up, ye abiding doors; and the Baron of celebrity shall arise in”).
C.S. Lewis credibility out that Canticle 110, one of the richest of the Messianic psalms in its signification, is appointed as the scripture annual for Christmas Day in the Church of England:[xl]
We may at aboriginal be afraid by this. There is annihilation in it about accord and goodwill, annihilation accidentally evocative of the abiding at Bethlehem. It seems to acquire been originally either a accession ode for a new king, able acquisition and empire, or a composition addressed to some baron on the eve of a war, able victory.
It is abounding of threats. The “rod” of the king’s ability is to go alternating from Jerusalem, adopted kings are to be wounded, activity fields to be covered with carnage, skulls cracked. The agenda is not “Peace and goodwill” but “Beware. He’s coming.”
One acknowledgment to this adumbration is to say that Christians are mistaken in applying the abandon in this canticle to the activity and mission of Christ. However, Lewis credibility out that Jesus is articular clearly and afresh in that canticle in the New Testament.[xli] And the affiliation in the canticle is that the baron it describes derives his ascendancy from the alluringly delegated priesthood alleged for the age-old priest-king Melchizedek, the aforementioned alone who conferred aloft Abraham the fulness of the priesthood. Lewis continues:[xlii]
Melchizedek resembles (in his adapted way he is the alone Old Testament appearance who resembles) Christ Himself. For he, like Melchizedek claims to be Priest, admitting not of the apostolic tribe, and additionally King. Melchizedek absolutely does point to Him; and so of advance does the hero of Canticle 110 who is a baron but additionally has the aforementioned array of priesthood.
The salvific adventure of the faithful. The Latter-day Saints acquire that the arrangement of contest categorical for Israelite priest-kings and the Messiah they embodied is by no agency extraneous to the activity of the accustomed adherent of Christ in the abiding arrangement of things.[xliii] John Eaton observed:[xliv]
To access absolutely into the accord of [Psalm] 23, the crude charge aboriginal accomplish the alarming adventure through [the distress] of [Psalm] 22, through that abode breadth the abandoned adumbrative suffers to the utmost, holds true, and obtains victory; accepting stood with Him in that [dreadful[xlv]] place, the crude will apperceive the joy of the homecoming.
Reinforcing the absorption of the adventure in the canticle as a abandonment and homecoming[xlvi] is the accompanying affair of airy development in the activity of the faithful. The alone begins as a sheep, defective annihilation because all such an beastly requires is that which sustains activity and breath. Next, however, the Lord “restoreth [its] soul,” bringing new activity to one who was spiritually dead, “someone who has about chock-full breathing.”[xlvii] As in the Beastly Apocalypse of 1 Enoch, the beastly has become a man as allotment of a alluringly induced airy transformation.[xlviii]
Consistent with this transformation, the adumbration that follows reflects ambit “more adapted for humans”[xlix] than for animals: “right paths”/“paths of righteousness” and “for his name’s sake.” “One is additionally addled by the change in ballad 4, as the advocate now addresses God, rather than talking about Him.”[l] Finally, according to Benjamin Segal:[li]
The appellation “with me”[lii] grows added central. Elsewhere, it is a able appellation aback acclimated with the Deity, which is rarely: three times by Jacob (God actuality with him on his journey[liii]); already agreeable Moses to angle with God;[liv] and already by Job abandoning God’s aloft support.[lv] The term, an adumbrated act of grace, is placed actuality in the centermost of the psalm. (Yaakov Bazak addendum that the Hebrew of “for You are with me”[lvi] is absolutely the average of the canticle by chat count, afterwards the title). One wonders whether the canticle comes to ascertain this attenuate and arduous phrase: what it agency to “be with” God. …
Verse 5 continues the ascent, the absorption of actuality “with” God now actuality fabricated accessible as God plays anxious host, with hasty hyperbole, God anniversary man! Warmth and acquaintance abound, all dangers larboard alfresco the allegorical hosting tent.
Verse 6, in turn, maximizes the aspect of time: abode in God’s attendance all of the years (“days”) of one’s life. By abiding to advertence to God in the third actuality as at the beginning, the ballad encloses the canticle (as does its inclusio, “Lord”) and invites absolute apologue to its opening. Indeed, the change is massive. The aboriginal “lacking nothing,”[lvii] which adumbrated accepting basal aliment and rest, has confused all the way to connected acquaintance and aegis with and by God! Appropriately the canticle has evolved, calmly but quickly, amid extremes — from basal to acute degrees of affiliation and support. …
The concrete movement beyond the canticle is marked: from beck and lea, through a valley, to a covering (presumably, breadth the aliment is offered) [cf. the Tabernacle and its shewbread], to the apologue of a abundance [the Lord’s own abode place]). The concrete advance mirrors the amplification of the relationship.
Paralleling the absorption of the Canticle 23 as a account of airy development is the advancement by some of the aboriginal Christian fathers that it is an apologue anecdotic the ordinances of salvation. Athanasius, a fourth-century abbey of Alexandria, taught[lviii] that “he leadeth me beside the still waters” is “perhaps to be accepted as angelic baptism,” that “thou anointest my arch with oil” agency “the abstruse chrism” (the oil acclimated in the anointings of aboriginal Christian ordinances), and “thou prepares a table afore me,” agency “the abstruse table” — in added words the commemoration in LDS parlance, acerb associated by aboriginal Christians with the table of shewbread in the temple.[lix]
Cyril of Alexandria went on to advance a annual for the absorption of feasting in the attendance of one’s enemies:[lx] “You acquire able for us a airy table, so that by bistro and actuality adequate we will be able to face our persecutors at any time. … For Satan fears those who become pious participants in the mysteries.”
1 The Lord is my shepherd; I shall not want.
The Lord is my shepherd. Holladay’s annual of this byword are account commendation verbatim:[lxi]
Even admitting I do not acquire the actualization that Baron David wrote all the psalms, I anticipate it is account advancing the achievability that Baron David wrote this one. … If it was accounting by David, afresh there are two credibility to be advised in the use of “shepherd” for God.
The aboriginal is that David himself had been a attend as a boy.[lxii] If David is the singer, afresh it is acrid that he, the bygone shepherd, now animated to the accomplished position of the nation Israel, himself acknowledges a all-powerful shepherd, God, so that he, David has an character as [one of God’s sheep].[lxiii]
The additional point, of which abounding bodies are not aware, is that in the age-old Abreast East a adjudicator was alleged “shepherd” of his people: this is the approved acceptance in Assyrian and in Homeric Greek.[lxiv] In Jeremiah 2:8, for example, the astrologer uses “shepherds” [KJV: “pastors”] to beggarly the rulers of Israel. … So if David “shepherds” his people, afresh there is a all-powerful shepherd, a all-powerful ruler, aloft David. Indeed, Canticle 78 is about a annotation on the twenty-third psalm: in Canticle 78:52, God “led his bodies like sheep, and guided them in the wilderness like a flock,” and then, in verses 70-71, God “chose his assistant David, and took him from the sheepfolds, from disposed the nursing ewes he brought him to be the attend of his bodies Jacob, of Israel, his inheritance.”
The Lord. Aback the appellation “Lord” is capitalized in the Old Testament, we can about consistently acquire that it stands for the Hebrew “Yahweh” or “Jehovah.” This was the adapted name for the God of Israel arise to Moses in Exodus 3. So the age-old clairvoyant would acquire accepted the byword to beggarly accurately “It is Yahweh [as adjoin to the gods of added nations] who is my shepherd.”[lxv] Later, Christians would acquire been reminded of the Savior, who is referred to as “the Lord”[lxvi] in the Gospels. John annal that He declared Himself as the Acceptable Shepherd.[lxvii]
I shall not want. The alone begins the canticle as a sheep, defective annihilation because all such an beastly requires is that which sustains activity and breath. See additionally animadversion on ballad 4 “I will abhorrence no evil” below.
I. Segal observes:[lxviii] “Whereas best Jewish adoration is in the plural, this advocate refers to himself seventeen times!”
2 He maketh me to lie bottomward in blooming pastures: he leadeth me beside the still waters.
The needs abounding are minimal, as God provides food, water, and calm. All is well, and the arena is idyllic. (Threats will be articulate alone later.) Sforno emphasized that the angel attributes all acceptable to God’s benevolence and none to the arete of the advocate (who is actuality alone a sheep).
3 He restoreth my soul: he leadeth me in the paths of appropriateness for his name’s sake.
He restoreth my soul. “Though ‘He restoreth my soul’ is time-honored, the Hebrew nefesh does not beggarly ‘soul’ but ‘life breath’ or ‘life.’ The angel is of accession who has about chock-full animation and is revived, brought aback to life.”[lxx]
the paths of righteousness. “‘Right paths’ betoken adapted behavior and ethical restoration, as able-bodied as a accepted additional acceptation of the term, paths of victory, emphasizing the life-saving aspect of the verse.”[lxxi]
for his name’s sake. Baker and Ricks point out the temple allusions of the accepted verse:[lxxii]
“Name” is about consistently a key chat because new covenants are about consistently associated with new names.
The psalm’s “he leadeth me in the paths of appropriateness for his name’s sake” is about as aboveboard as it can be. “Paths” according ordinances,[lxxiii] “righteousness” is zedek [cf. the name “Melchizedek” = my name is righteousness], and name is “covenant.” Afterwards alteration its meaning, it ability read, “He leads me through the priesthood ordinances for the account of the covannts we accomplish together.”
4 Yea, admitting I airing through the basin of the adumbration of death, I will abhorrence no evil: for thou art with me; thy rod and thy agents they abundance me.
the basin of the adumbration of death. The Hebrew byword is abundant beneath than the English one: “begey tsalmawet. Admitting philologists acquire that the Masoretic tsalmawet is absolutely a ambiguous delivery of tsalmut — apparently a anapestic chat for ‘darkness’ with the ut catastrophe artlessly a answer of absorption — the acceptable delivery reflects commodity like an orthographic pun on a folk ancestry (tsel agency ‘shadow,’ mawet agency ‘death’), so there is absolution in application the afterlife component.”[lxxiv]
I will abhorrence no evil. Robert Alter gives the avant-garde agnate of this book as “I abhorrence no harm.”[lxxv] In ballad 1, the connected byword “The Lord is my shepherd” was followed by the abbreviate byword “I shall not want.”[lxxvi] Similarly here, “Yea, admitting I airing through the basin of the adumbration of death,” is followed by “I will abhorrence no evil.” Robert Alter credibility out that the alterity produced by a connected band followed by a abbreviate band in ballad 4, “gives these words a acute aftereffect as an affirmation of assurance afterwards the about diffuse abstraction of the abode of fear.”[lxxvii]
thy rod and thy agents they abundance me. Segal comments:[lxxviii]
God watches over the activity (safety) of the advocate (lamb, which has clearly absent into danger), demography him through the adapted (appropriate) paths, allegorical him cautiously through the alarming (predator-infested) routes. The sheep trusts absolutely in the shepherd, whose symbols are the rod (a club) and the agents (walking stick) he carries.
The accouterments of the attend adumbrate the two agnate emblems of ascendancy and priesthood that are about bestowed on the baron in ballad 6. Similarly, the chat “comfort” in the Baron James Adjustment hints anticipates that these instruments of aegis for the sheep will be afflicted into symbols of ascendancy and enabling ability in the easily of the king.
5 Thou preparest a table afore me in the attendance of abundance enemies: thou anointest my arch with oil; my cup runneth over.
Thou prepares a table afore me. … thou anointest my arch with oil. According to Eaton:[lxxix]
The Lord is now pictured as host to the psalmist, with alone the two abstracts at the table. The Lord has “arranged” or “put in order” the table — advance it with acceptable fare; he has all-powerful the psalmist’s arch with oil, a custom for a blithe meal; and he has abundantly abounding his cup. The arena suggests the accord meal of adoration [in the sanctuary], breadth offerings were fabricated and from them a meal aggregate as it were with the Deity.[lxxx]
in the attendance of abundance enemies. Superficially seen, the annual ability assume to be that “the advocate gloats over the abasement of his enemies,” an absorption that accords with added passages in the Bible and abroad in the age-old apple but is inconsistent with Jesus’ commodity that we charge adulation and do acceptable for our enemies.[lxxxi] C. S. Lewis commented:[lxxxii]
The poet’s amusement of his present abundance would not be complete unless those alarming Joneses (who acclimated to attending bottomward their noses at him) were watching it all and antisocial it. … The pettiness and boorishness of it, abnormally in such surroundings, are adamantine to endure.
However, what is abandoned in the tack of aggravating to explain the acceptation of the ballad with advertence to petty quarrels amid neighbors is that best acceptable “the ambience of this canticle was originally aristocratic … — appropriately … the ‘enemies’ mentioned … are apparently Israelites acute adjoin the baron or, beneath likely, civic enemies.”[lxxxiii] Agnate to Cyril of Alexander’s adumbration mentioned above, breadth God imparted the backbone through His abounding table that aboriginal Christians would charge to face baleful persecutors, the enemies of the baron referenced in this ballad constituted persistent, baleful threats to his activity and the abundance of his people. The around-the-clock attendance of these enemies was not a acceptable befalling to gloat, but rather a abstaining admonition of the connected charge for God’s alert care. Eaton comments:[lxxxiv]
The acceptable gestures of the Lord to this distinct bedfellow are done in the afterimage of and over adjoin his adversaries; they are demonstrative, admonishing foes that the Covenant-Lord will assure his Chosen One.
Baker and Ricks beam that one ability see an allusion to the abiding promises of the Lord in priesthood ordinances[lxxxv] in the byword “in the attendance of abundance enemies.” This byword “is a answer of the affiance of amnesty — that the covenants will be accomplished no amount who tries to anticipate it.”[lxxxvi]
Though it apparently has annihilation to do with the way an age-old clairvoyant would acquire accepted this phrase, Harold S. Kushner suggests an estimation that may be of absorption to avant-garde readers:[lxxxvii]
The Hebrew chat translated “in the attendance of [mine enemies]” is neged, which commonly agency “opposite.” Ability we booty the ballad to mean, God, You adapt a table afore me in adverse to the bodies about me, to whom I angry for affecting nourishment, alone to be disappointed. … The psalmist concludes, God, acknowledge You for actuality there aback abounding of my animal accompany weren’t up to the challenge. Acknowledge You for comestible my acceptance in my own worthiness. Acknowledge You for alimentative me with Your attendance aback so abounding others could not admonition me.
thou anointest my arch with oil. “If David is the psalmist, ‘anointing’ actuality additionally suggests the anointing he accustomed in acceptable king.”[lxxxviii]
my cup runneth over. Baker and Ricks comment:[lxxxix]
To acquire one’s cup run over is to acquire so abounding blessings that there is not allowance abundant to accept them.[xc] That absolution is a analytic — alike all-important — cessation to the accession commemoration and the angelic temple barbecue that confirms it.
6 Surely advantage and benevolence shall chase me all the canicule of my life: and I will abide in the abode of the Lord for ever.
goodness and benevolence shall chase me. “Follow” could be apprehend added acerb as “pursue.” David Freedman credibility out the age-old Abreast East accomplishments of the phrase:[xci]
In the accomplishments is the fabulous annual of the arch angelic accompanied by bottom all-powerful beings who serve him as aggregation and afterwards bodyguard.[xcii] The pre-Israelite attitude has been preserved about complete in Habakkuk 3:5 breadth Pestilence (deber) and Plague (resp) are declared as boot afore and abaft Deity. Abroad the accompanying abstracts acquire been demythologized in the anatomy of all-powerful attributes, as, e.g., in Canticle 96:6:
Honor and majesty are afore himStrength and adorableness are in his sanctuary
In Canticle 23, there is a added adaptation. The all-powerful virtues will leave their posts in the adorable court, and accompany the Psalmist throughout his life. There is a adumbration that commodity abutting all-powerful ceremoniousness is actuality accorded to the Psalmist. Perhaps we acquire actuality an aboriginal anatomy of the afterwards commodity of guardian angels.
I will abide in the abode of the Lord. The “house of the Lord” “may accredit to Solomon’s accomplished courts and building, but could additionally accredit to the beforehand altar of David’s time.”[xciii] “to God he allotment to abide on the angelic acropolis of Zion (where temple and alcazar adjoined).”[xciv]
for ever. “This absolute byword catches up the advertence to ‘all the canicule of my life’ in the above-mentioned line. It does not beggarly ‘forever.’”[xcv]
My acknowledgment for the love, support, and admonition of Kathleen M. Bradshaw on this article. Thanks additionally to Jonathon M. Riley and Stephen T. Whitlock for admired comments and suggestions.
Elder Jeffrey R. Holland has accounting a absolute affective angelic annotation on the Psalms (J. R. Holland, For Times of Trouble).
In autograph this commodity I acquire abundantly accepted these three accomplished commentaries: R. Alter, Psalms; J. H. Eaton, Psalms Commentary; B. Segal, New Psalm. In addition, I acerb acclaim William L. Holladay’s history of the accession of the Psalms (W. L. Holladay, Psalms).
I acquire additionally accepted the assignment of LDS advisers LeGrand Baker and Stephen L. Ricks, who acquire accounting a abundant annotation on the book of Psalms emphasizing capacity on the temple and the plan of conservancy (L. L. Baker, et al., Who Shall Ascend).
This Book of Mormon KnoWhy from Book of Mormon Axial contains an astute altercation affective the description of three paths (including “the aisle of righteousness,” mentioned in Canticle 23:3): https://knowhy.bookofmormoncentral.org/content/why-does-alma-mention-three-kinds-of-paths-in-one-verse
For added scripture assets apropos to this lesson, see The Interpreter Foundation Old Testament Actuality Commodity Index (http://interpreterfoundation.org/gospel-doctrine-resource-index/ot-gospel-doctrine-resource-index/) and the Book of Mormon Axial Old Testament KnoWhy account (https://knowhy.bookofmormoncentral.org/tags/old-testament).
Alter, Robert, ed. The Book of Psalms: A Adjustment with Commentary. New York City, NY: W. W. Norton, 2007.
Asad, Talal. “The architectonics of adoration as an animal category.” In Genealogies of Religion: Discipline and Reasons of Ability in Christianity and Islam, edited by Talal Asad, 27-54. Baltimore, MD: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1993.
Baker, LeGrand L., and Stephen D. Ricks. Who Shall Ascend into the Acropolis of the Lord? The Psalms in Israel’s Temple Adoration in the Old Testament and in the Book of Mormon. Salt Lake City, UT: Eborn Books, 2009.
Barker, Margaret. On Apple as It Is in Heaven: Temple Apologue in the New Testament. Edinburgh, Scotland: T&T Clark, 1995.
———. The Hidden Attitude of the Commonwealth of God. London, England: Affiliation for Promoting Christian Ability (SPCK), 2007.
Bartlett, John, and Geoffrey O’Brien, eds. 1855. Familiar Quotations 18th ed. New York City, NY: Little, Brown and Company, 2012.
Beecher, Henry Ward. Activity Thoughts Gathered from the Extemporaneous Discourses of Henry Breadth Beecher. Edinburgh, Scotland: Alexander Strahan, 1858. https://books.google.com/books?id=kQ2dSCq-tsAC. (accessed June 30, 2018).
Bradshaw, Jeffrey M., and Ronan J. Head. “The investiture console at Mari and rituals of all-powerful ascendancy in the age-old Abreast East.” Studies in the Bible and Antique 4 (2012): 1-42.
Bradshaw, Jeffrey M. Temple Capacity in the Oath and Agreement of the Priesthood. 2014 amend ed. Salt Lake City, UT: Eborn Books, 2014.
———. “What did Joseph Smith apperceive about avant-garde temple ordinances by 1836?”.” In The Temple: Age-old and Restored. Proceedings of the 2014 Temple on Arise Zion Symposium, edited by Stephen D. Ricks and Donald W. Parry. Temple on Arise Zion 3, 1-144. Orem and Salt Lake City, UT: The Interpreter Foundation and Eborn Books, 2016.
Bradshaw, Jeffrey M., and Matthew L. Bowen. ““By the Blood Ye Are Sanctified”: The Symbolic, Salvific, Interrelated, Additive, Retrospective, and Anticipatory Nature of the Ordinances of Airy Rebirth in John 3 and Moses 6.” Interpreter: A Journal of Mormon Scripture 24 (2017): 123-316. http://www.mormoninterpreter.com/by-the-blood-ye-are-sanctified-the-symbolic-salvific-interrelated-additive-retrospective-and-anticipatory-nature-of-the-ordinances-of-spiritual-rebirth-in-john-3-and-moses-6/. (accessed January 10, 2018).
Brown, Francis, S. R. Driver, and Charles A. Briggs. 1906. The Brown-Driver-Briggs Hebrew and English Lexicon. Peabody, MA: Hendrickson Publishers, 2005.
Brown, Raymond E. 1970. The Actuality According to John XIII—XXI. Anchor Bible 29a. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2008.
Bunyan, John. 1678. The Annotated Pilgrim’s Progress. Chicago, IL: Moody Press, 1980.
Calabro, David. “Joseph Smith and the architectonics of Genesis.” In The Temple: Age-old and Restored. Proceedings of the 2014 Temple on Arise Zion Symposium, edited by Stephen D. Ricks and Donald W. Parry. Temple on Arise Zion 3, 163-79. Orem and Salt Lake City, UT: The Interpreter Foundation and Eborn Books, 2016. http://www.mormoninterpreter.com/events/2014-temple-on-mount-zion-conference/program-schedule/. (accessed October 27, 2014).
deClaissé-Walford, Nancy L. “An intertextual annual of Psalms 22, 23, and 24.” In The Book of Psalms: Composition and Accession (Formation and Estimation of Old Testament Abstruse 4, Craig A. Evans and Peter W. Flint, eds.), edited by Peter W. Flint and Patrick D. Miller, Jr. Supplements to Vetus Testamentum 99, eds. H. M. Barstad, Phyllis A. Bird, R. P. Gordon, A. Hurvitz, A. van der Kooij, A. Lemaire, R. Smend, J Trebolle Barrera, James C. VanderKam and H. G. M. Williamson, 139-52. Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill, 2005.
Douglas, Mary. Leviticus as Literature. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press, 2001.
Eaton, John H. Ascendancy and the Psalms. London, England: SCM Press, 1976.
———. The Psalms: A Absolute and Airy Annotation with an Introduction and New Translation. London, England: T&T Clark, 2003.
Freedman, David Noel. “Twenty-third psalm.” In Pottery, Poetry, and Prophecy: Studies in Aboriginal Hebrew Poetry, 275-302. Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 1980.
Fussell, Paul. 1983. Class: A Adviser Through the American Cachet System. New York City, NY: Touchstone, 1992.
Holladay, William L. 1993. The Psalms through Three Thousand Years: Prayerbook of a Cloud of Witnesses. Minneapolis, MN: Fortress Press, 1996.
Holland, Jeffrey R. For Times of Trouble: Airy Alleviation from the Psalms. Salt Lake City, UT: Deseret Book, 2012.
Hymns of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. Salt Lake City, UT: The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, 1985.
Keller, Phillip. A Attend Looks at Canticle 23. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan Publishing, Daybreak Books, 1970.
Koehler, Ludwig, Walter Baumgartner, Johann Jakob Stamm, M. E. J. Richardson, G. J. Jongeling-Vos, and L. J. de Regt. The Hebrew and Aramaic Lexicon of the Old Testament. 4 vols. Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill, 1994.
Kushner, Harold S. The Lord Is My Shepherd: Healing Wisdom of the Twenty-Third Psalm. New York City, NY: Alfred A. Knopf, 2003.
Larsen, David J. “Ascending into the acropolis of the Lord: What the Psalms can acquaint us about the rituals of the Aboriginal Temple.” In Age-old Temple Worship: Proceedings of the Expound Symposium, 14 May 2011, edited by Matthew B. Brown, Jeffrey M. Bradshaw, Stephen D. Ricks and John S. Thompson. Temple on Arise Zion 1, 171-88. Orem and Salt Lake City, UT: The Interpreter Foundation and Eborn Books, 2014.
Lee, Harold B. 1971. The Bulletin (President Joseph Fielding Smith). In New Era. https://www.lds.org/new-era/1971/01/the-message-my-dear-young-fellow-workers?lang=eng&clang=ase. (accessed June 30, 2018).
Lewis, C. S. “On the annual of old books.” In God in the Dock, edited by Walter Hooper, 200-07. Grand Rapids, MI: William B. Eerdmans, 1970. http://www.pacificaoc.org/wp-content/uploads/On-the-Reading-of-Old-Books.pdf. (accessed August 8, 2017).
———. 1958. Reflections on the Psalms. San Diego, CA: Harcourt, A Harvest Book, 1964.
McLuhan, Marshall, and Quentin Fiore. War and Accord in the Global Village. New York City, NY: Bantam, 1968.
Migne, Jacques P., ed. Patrologiae Cursus Completus, Series Graeca. 161 vols. Paris, France, 1857-1866. http://patrologia.ct.aegean.gr/PG_Migne/. (accessed March 28).
Mowinckel, Sigmund. 1962. The Psalms in Israel’s Worship. 2 vols. The Biblical Resource Series, ed. Astrid B. Beck and David Noel Freedman. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 2004.
Nasuti, Harry P. “The analytic acceptation of arrangement adn alternative in the book of Psalms.” In The Book of Psalms: Composition and Accession (Formation and Estimation of Old Testament Abstruse 4, Craig A. Evans and Peter W. Flint, eds.), edited by Peter W. Flint and Patrick D. Miller, Jr. Supplements to Vetus Testamentum 99, eds. H. M. Barstad, Phyllis A. Bird, R. P. Gordon, A. Hurvitz, A. van der Kooij, A. Lemaire, R. Smend, J Trebolle Barrera, James C. VanderKam and H. G. M. Williamson, 311-39. Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill, 2005.
The NET Bible. In New English Adjustment Bible, Biblical Studies Foundation. https://net.bible.org/. (accessed August 12, 2017).
Nickelsburg, George W. E., ed. 1 Enoch 1: A Annotation on the Book of 1 Enoch, Capacity 1-36; 81-108. Hermeneia: A Critical and Absolute Annotation on the Bible. Minneapolis, MN: Fortress Press, 2001.
Oaks, Dallin H. “Scripture annual and revelation.” Ensign 25, January 1995, 7-9.
———. “Scripture annual and revelation. From an abode accustomed to the BYU Studies Academy, Provo, Utah, January 29, 1993.” Ensign 25, January 1995, 7-9. https://www.lds.org/ensign/1995/01/scripture-reading-and-revelation?lang=eng. (accessed June 2, 2018).
Prothero, Stephen. Religious Literacy: What Every American Needs to Know—and Doesn’t. San Francisco, CA: HarperSanFrancisco, 2007.
Rashi. c. 1105. Rashi’s Annotation on Psalms. Translated by Mayer I. Gruber. The Brill Advertence Library of Judaism 18. Philadelphia, PA: The Jewish Advertisement Society, 2007.
Renger, Johannes M. Hammurabi (179201750 BC). In The Latin LIbrary. http://www.thelatinlibrary.com/imperialism/images/hammurabi.jpg. (accessed April 13, 2012).
Rivkin, Ellis. 1984. What Crucified Jesus? Messianism, Pharisaism, and the Development of Christianity. New York, NY: UAHC Press, 1997.
Segal, Benjamin. A New Psalm: A Adviser to Psalms as Literature. Jerusalem, Israel: Gefen Publishing, 2013.
Smith, Joseph, Jr. The Words of Joseph Smith. Salt Lake City, UT: Bookcraft, 1980. https://rsc.byu.edu/archived/words-joseph-smith-contemporary-accounts-nauvoo-discourses-prophet-joseph/1843/21-may-1843. (accessed February 6, 2016).
Smith, Joseph, Jr., Andrew H. Hedges, Alex D. Smith, and Richard Lloyd Anderson. Journals: December 1841-April 1843. The Joseph Smith Papers, Journals 2, ed. Dean C. Jessee, Ronald K. Esplin and Richard Lyman Bushman. Salt Lake City, UT: The Church Historian’s Press, 2011.
Smith, Joseph, Jr. 1938. Commodity of the Astrologer Joseph Smith. Salt Lake City, UT: Deseret Book, 1969.
Taylor, Charles. A Civil Age. Cambridge, MA: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2007.
Walton, John H., and J. Harvey Walton. The Absent Apple of the Israelite Conquest: Covenant, Retribution, and the Fate of the Canaanites. Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, IVP Academic, 2017.
[i] Acclimated with permission of Book of Mormon Central. See https://knowhy.bookofmormoncentral.org/reference-knowhy.
[ii] Of course, for Christians they additionally serve an important purpose as a accumulating of agitating foreshadowings of the activity and mission of Christ.
[iii] Representational angelic works accounting in contempo decades accommodate one authored by a attend (P. Keller, Canticle 23), accession by a Jewish clergyman (H. S. Kushner, Lord Is My Shepherd), as able-bodied as an affecting aggregate by an LDS apostle, Elder Jeffrey R. Holland (J. R. Holland, For Times of Trouble).
[iv] Bible academic John Walton has insightfully empiric (J. H. Walton et al., Absent Apple of the Israelite Conquest, p. 9):
The Bible is accounting for us (that is, we are declared to account from its all-powerful bulletin and apprehend that it will admonition us …), but it is not accounting to us (not in our accent or in acknowledgment to our culture). … The Bible was accounting to the bodies of age-old Israel in the accent of age-old Israel, and accordingly its bulletin operates according to the argumentation of age-old Israel.
Of course, these two approaches to annual are commutual rather than opposed. For example, we acquisition that Joseph Smith, like Nephi, sometimes adapted the acceptance and commodity of scripture in adjustment to bigger “liken them” (1 Nephi 19:24. See additionally 1 Nephi 19:23; 2 Nephi 11:2, 8) to the bearings of his abreast hearers, while at added times he accomplished that the Saints could profitably adapt scripture by “enquiring” about the particulars of the bearings which “drew out the answer” for its age-old admirers (J. Smith, Jr., Teachings, 29 January 1843, p. 276. Cf. J. Smith, Jr., Words, Willard Richards, 29 January 1843, p. 161; J. Smith, Jr. et al., Journals, 1841-1843, 29 January 1843, p. 252).
In all this, of course, we charge never lose afterimage of the capital role of Angelic Ghost as a accompaniment in scripture study. We neither accept nor advise “the chat of truth” except “by the Spirit of truth” (D&C 50:19). In an important bulletin on this subject, Elder Dallin H. Oaks has accounting (D. H. Oaks, Scripture Reading; D. H. Oaks, Scripture Reading):
What makes us altered from best added Christians in the way we apprehend and use the Bible and added scriptures is our acceptance in continuing revelation. For us, the scriptures are not the ultimate antecedent of knowledge, but what precedes the ultimate source. The ultimate ability comes by revelation. With Moroni we assert that he who denieth adumbration “knoweth not the actuality of Christ” (Mormon 9:8).
[v] W. L. Holladay, Psalms, p. 10.
[vi] Exodus 2:22.
[vii] Charles Taylor has discussed the activity and after-effects of the blow of “immediate certainty” of the moral/ airy in Western ability (C. Taylor, Civil Age, pp. 11ff). See additionally T. Asad, Construction, pp. 47–52.
[viii] Attributed to John Culkin, as quoted by Howard Gossage in “Ramparts Magazine”, April 1966, p. 37 in https://www.unz.com/print/Ramparts-1966apr-00034/ (accessed July 2, 2018). Although the adage has a connected history, it was afflicted in the assignment of Marshall McLuhan (https://quoteinvestigator.com/2013/12/23/water-fish/ [accessed July 2, 2018]), who explained the account as follows: “One affair about which angle apperceive absolutely annihilation is water, aback they acquire no anti-environment which would accredit them to apperceive the aspect they animate in” (M. McLuhan et al., War and Peace, p. 175).
[ix] C. S. Lewis, Psalms, pp. 12, 13. Cf. Marshall McLuhan: “I arise from a 19th aeon country, Canada, and this gives me a abundant advantage in attractive at the 20th century” (http://www.themediumisthemassage.com/the-film/
[accessed July 2, 2018])/
[x] C. S. Lewis, On the Reading, p. 202.
[xi] W. L. Holladay, Psalms, p. 359.
[xii] In his accomplished discussion, ibid., pp. 362-365 cites sources such as the affiliate Louisa May Alcott’s accepted Little Women (1868, affiliate 40, breadth Jo assemblage the afterlife of her adolescent ) as able-bodied as the acclaimed and broadly reprinted extract from Henry Breadth Beecher’s address on Canticle 23 (H. W. Beecher, Activity Thoughts, pp. 6-7):
David has larboard no sweeter canticle than the abbreviate twenty-third. It is but a moment’s aperture of his soul; but, as aback one, walking the winter street, sees the aperture opened for some one to enter, and the red ablaze streams a moment forth, and the forms of gay accouchement are active to accost the comer, and affable music sounds, admitting the aperture shuts and leaves the night black, yet it cannot shut aback afresh all that the eye, the ear, the heart, and the acuteness acquire seen—so in this psalm, admitting it is but a moment’s aperture of the soul, are emitted truths of accord and alleviation that will never be absent from the world.
The twenty-third canticle is the accompanist of the psalms. It is small, of a airedale feather, singing shyly out of obscurity; but, oh! it has abounding the air of the accomplished apple with accordant joy, greater than the affection can conceive. Blessed be the day on which that canticle was born.
What would you say of a crude commissioned of God to biking up and bottomward the apple singing a aberrant melody, which, aback one heard, acquired him to balloon whatever Sorrow he had? And so the singing angel goes on his way through all lands, singing in the accent of every nation, active abroad agitation by the pulses of the air which his argot moves with all-powerful power. Behold aloof such an one! This crude God has beatific to allege in every accent on the globe. It has charmed added griefs to blow than all the aesthetics of the world. It has adjourned to their alcove added felon thoughts, added atramentous doubts, added crooked sorrows, than there are bank on the sea shore. It has comforted the blue-blooded host of the poor. It has articulate adventuresomeness to the army of the disappointed. It has caked analgesic and alleviation into the affection of the sick, of captives in dungeons, of widows in their avidity griefs, of orphans in their loneliness. Dying soldiers acquire died easier as it was apprehend to them; abhorrent hospitals acquire been illumined; it has visited the captive and burst his chains, and, like Peter’s angel, led him alternating in imagination, and articulate him aback to his home again. It has fabricated the dying Christian bondservant freer than his master, and consoled those whom, dying, he larboard abaft mourning, not so abundant that he was gone, as because they were larboard behind, and could not go too. Nor is its assignment done. It will go singing to your accouchement and my children, and to their children, through all the ancestors of time; nor will it bend its wings till the aftermost crude is safe, and time ended; and afresh it shall fly aback to the bust of God, beginning it issued, and complete on, circuitous with all those sounds of angelic joy which accomplish heaven agreeable for ever.
[xiii] Canticle 23:4.
[xiv] W. L. Holladay, Psalms, p. 360.
[xv] J. Bunyan, Progress, pp. 77, 80-81.
[xvi] W. L. Holladay, Psalms, p. 360. Cf. J. Bunyan, Progress, p. 81: “that aphotic and afflictive state.”
[xvii] W. L. Holladay, Psalms, p. 11. Cf. the altercation of adjustment issues in this byword in R. Alter, Psalms, p. 79.
[xviii] J. R. Holland, For Times of Trouble, pp. 215-216.
[xix] Hymns (1985), Hymns (1985), “High on the Abundance Top,” #5.
[xx] Photograph from J. M. Renger, Hammurabi.
[xxi] 1 Corinthians 14:15.
[xxii] M. Barker, Earth, pp. 1-2.
[xxiii] W. L. Holladay, Psalms, p. 13.
[xxiv] M. Barker, Hidden, p. 34.
[xxv] Herberg has characterized America’s “faith in faith” as a “strange beverage of adherence to adoration and aloofness as to its content” (S. Prothero, Literacy, p. 113). As an example, Stephen Prothero cites a account by President Dwight D. Eisenhower to a Soviet official in a December 1952 affair that “our anatomy of government has no faculty unless it is founded in a acutely acquainted religious faith, and I don’t affliction what it is” (ibid., p. 113). The aforementioned angry adherence to an abstruse “idea” of God afar from any particulars is bidding added prosaically in an off-the-street animadversion fabricated to a sociologist by a high-school apprentice in the Average West, “Yeah, we smoke blockhead all over, in our cars, walking about afore class, anytime, but that doesn’t beggarly we don’t acquire in God or that we’ll let anybody put God down” (P. Fussell, Class, p. 150).
[xxvi] C. S. Lewis, Psalms.
[xxvii] It is accurate that in the byword “thy rod and thy agents they abundance me” (Psalm 23:4), “the Piel of נָחַם (nakham) [cf. 1 Nephi 16:34] aback acclimated with a animal object, agency ‘comfort, console’” (NET Bible, NET Bible, Canticle 23:4 n.) in commodity abutting to the accepted faculty of the chat today. About the aristocratic ambience of the canticle hints at a accessible transformation of the shepherd’s airedale accouterments into the emblems of investiture that will be alluringly bestowed on the baron (B. Segal, New Psalm, p. 104). For added on the apologue of all-powerful investiture of rod and agents in the age-old world, see J. M. Bradshaw et al., Investiture Panel, pp. 34-39.
[xxviii] B. Segal, New Psalm, p. 104.
[xxix] The change in acceptation of the chat “comfort” in avant-garde times has additionally afflicted avant-garde readers’ compassionate of the “Comforter” (Paraclete) announced of in John 14:16, 26; 15:26; 16:7. Raymond Brown writes (R. E. Brown, Actuality According to John XIII-XX1, p. 1137):
No one adjustment of paraklētos captures the complication of the functions argumentative and otherwise, that this amount has. The Paraclete is a attestant in aegis of Jesus, and a agent for him in the ambience of his balloon by his enemies; the Paraclete is a consoler of the aggregation for he takes Jesus’ abode amid them; the Paraclete is a abecedary and adviser of the aggregation and appropriately their helper.
[xxx] L. L. Baker et al., Who Shall Ascend, pp. 467, 469, 469 n. 525. See additionally pp. 627-629.
[xxxi] Rashi, Psalms, p. 266 n. 18.
[xxxii] H. B. Lee, The Message. The abounding ambience of President Lee’s account reads:
Somewhere I apprehend a account that the activity of a bi-weekly is to abundance the afflicted and to agonize the comforted. In some respects, I think, this is what the Church is all about—to abundance the afflicted and to agonize the comforted. We are to affliction for the needy, the fatherless, the widows. In the words of the Savior, we are to affliction for those who are “an hungred,” “thirsty,” “a stranger,” “naked,” “sick,” and “in prison.”
It is accessible to see that we are to affliction for the physical, social, emotional, and brainy needs of anniversary other. But the about-face of this account about a advertisement is additionally true. There are those who are too comforted and too abundant at affluence and too above to their responsibilities and opportunities. Some bodies charge to allotment with others their absolute blessings of the earth. Some bodies are too comforted and too abundant at affluence in their activity style—and they charge to become annoyed abundant to change for the better.
There are some who are too abundant at affluence in their prejudices and ideas—and they charge to apprehensive themselves afore the spirit of alliance and the attempt of the gospel. In added words, abounding bodies charge a alarm to repentance. Appropriately you see what I beggarly aback I say that in some respects the activity of the Church is commodity like that of the newspaper: to abundance the afflicted and to agonize those who are too comforted.
The agent of this adage seems to be the ascertainment of “Mr. Dooley,” the alias of Finley Peter Dunne (1867-1936) (Observations by Mr. Dooley, Newpaper Publicity, cited in J. Bartlett et al., Familiar Quotations (2012), p. 600 no. 16):
Th’ bi-weekly does ivrything f’r us. It runs th’ polis force an’ th’ banks, commands th’ milishi, controls th’ ligislachure, baptizes th’ young, marries th’ foolish, comforts th’ afflicted, afflicts th’ comfortable, buries th’ asleep an’ roasts thim afther ward.
[xxxiii] H. P. Nasuti, Analytic Significance, p. 311.
[xxxiv] N. L. deClaissé-Walford, Intertextual Reading, p. 143.
[xxxv] Manuscript affirmation for the connectedness of these three psalms can be apparent in three ways: 1. the way they arrest the breeze of surrounding psalms in our accepted Old Testament; 2. Their alignment in a altered abode in the Nachal Chever manuscripts; and 3. Their absence in the Asleep Sea Scrolls (ibid., pp. 141-142).
In addition, agnate capacity arise in the description of the troubles adverse the psalmist in 22 and 23 (ibid., p. 148):
Psalm 22 Psalm 23
“the dust of death” (v. 15) “the basin of the adumbration of afterlife (v. 4)
“dogs” (v. 16) “evil” (v. 4)
“be not far from me” (vv. 11, 19) “thou art with me” (v. 4)
“trouble is near” (v. 11) “in the attendance of abundance enemies” (v. 5)
[xxxvi] Ibid., p. 146. Cf. J. H. Eaton, Psalms Commentary, p. 123; J. H. Eaton, Kingship, p. 36.
[xxxvii] N. L. deClaissé-Walford, Intertextual Reading, p. 147.
[xxxviii] D. J. Larsen, Ascending. DeClaissé-Walford’s advancement differs with LeGrand Baker and Stephen L. Ricks’ angle that Canticle 23 ability acquire been articulate apart “on the eighth day of the temple drama,” apery “both a accretion and a connected affiance of all that the commemoration had shown” (L. L. Baker et al., Who Shall Ascend, p. 634).
Failing to accede the adjustment of Canticle 23 aloof above-mentioned to Canticle 24, Sigmund Mowinckel saw the aloft alone as “a authentic cogent of aplomb in God, abundantly by all adapted absolute circumstances” (S. Mowinckel, Psalms, 2:41).
[xxxix] N. L. deClaissé-Walford, Intertextual Reading, p. 151.
[xl] C. S. Lewis, Psalms, p. 122.
[xli] Matthew 22:41-46; Mark 12:35-37; Luke 20:41-44; Acts 2:34-35. See additionally Hebrews 7. While absolute abandon was averted during the aboriginal advancing of Christ, Ellis Rivkin eloquently portrays how the blackmail of abandon confused Jesus’ enemies to activity (E. Rivkin, Jesus, pp. 145-146):
What, afterwards all, is one to expect? Sweetness and light, genteel polemic, serene bearing aback a absorbing of charismatics challenges the ascendancy of the Scribes-Pharisees, exposes the Jews to Roman acrimony by admonition the advancing of God’s commonwealth and not the chain of Caesar’s kingdom, attracts crowds who could go berserk, causes a rumpus in the Temple breadth in the bosom of maddening crowds, evokes shouts of “Long animate the Baron of the Jews,” “Long animate the son of David, Hosanna in the highest” and neither affirms nor denies that he is Baron of the Jews? …
Those were acrid and assertive times. Judea had accepted to be ungovernable. There was not a day afterwards its violence, a anniversary afterwards its demonstrations, a year afterwards its insurrections. … In this clamor of abandon and anarchy, no absorbing was acceptable to arise out alive, atomic of all a affable absorbing with no political ambitions, alone a prophetic actuation to activate his bodies to the advancing of God’s kingdom. To the amount that his commodity activate a audition and to the amount that his preachings admiring crowds of admirers and to the amount that his wonder-working angry awe, to that amount was he apprenticed to allure the absorption of the aerial priest, appointed by the procurator, and agitate his concern. All that was bare was some adventure that spelled abeyant crisis and his fate was sealed.
[xlii] C. S. Lewis, Psalms, p. 123. On the accolade of the fulness of the priesthood on Abraham by Melchizedek and its appliance to agnate temple ordinances accustomed in our day, see J. M. Bradshaw, Temple Capacity in the Oath, pp. 53-58; J. M. Bradshaw, What Did Joseph Smith Know, pp. 6-8.
[xliii] E.g., D&C 76:56-59. This is, of course, constant with Bible references such as Exodus 19:6; Romans 8:17; Adumbration 1:6; 3:21 5:10.
[xliv] J. H. Eaton, Psalms Commentary, p. 124.
[xlv] Accustomed the about-face in accepted acceptation of the appellation “awesome,” I commissioned the chat “dreadful” here.
[xlvi] Admitting Baker and Ricks’ estimation of Canticle 23:1-3 as a description of a temple ball demography abode in a premortal apple is not convincing, a added accepted assuming of the canticle as allegorical apotheosis of a bitter adventure and a adorable accession is not afterwards arete (L. L. Baker et al., Who Shall Ascend, pp. 619-640).
[xlvii] R. Alter, Psalms, p. 78 n. 3.
[xlviii] Barker concludes that the abounding transformation of an “animal” to a “man” in the Beastly Apocalypse of 1 Enoch 85-89 represent the accepting of “angelic” status: “Noah [was] adapted from a balderdash into a ‘man’ afterwards an archangel had accomplished him a abstruseness (G. W. E. Nickelsburg, 1 Enoch 1, 89:1, p. 364), and… Moses [was] adapted from a sheep into a man afterwards he had been with the Lord on Sinai” (M. Barker, Hidden, p. 45). On the added hand, “the acceptable estimation of 1 Enoch 8:1 (G. W. E. Nickelsburg, 1 Enoch 1, 8:1, p. 188) — that the collapsed angels accomplished ‘the alteration of the world’—is that they accomplished how to change men into animals, that is, angels into mortals” (M. Barker, Hidden, p. 46).
[xlix] B. Segal, New Psalm, p. 104.
[l] Ibid., p. 104.
[li] Ibid., pp. 104-105, 106.
[lii] Canticle 23:4.
[liii] Genesis 28:20; 31:5, 42.
[liv] Exodus 24:12.
[lv] Job 29:5.
[lvi] Canticle 23:4.
[lvii] Canticle 23:1.
[lviii] J. P. Migne, Patrologiae Graeca, 27:col 140, cited in W. L. Holladay, Psalms, p. 13.
[lix] See J. M. Bradshaw et al., By the Blood Ye Are Sanctified, pp. 185-192.
[lx] J. P. Migne, Patrologiae Graeca, 69:841-842, cited in W. L. Holladay, Psalms, p. 13.
[lxi] W. L. Holladay, Psalms, p. 9.
[lxii] 1 Samuel 16:11.
[lxiii] Canticle 23:2-3.
[lxiv] F. Brown et al., Lexicon, 945a, I ra‘a, 1d; L. Koehler et al., Hebrew and Aramaic Lexicon, 1176a, 1 r‘b, B 3.
[lxv] See W. L. Holladay, Psalms, pp. 9-10. For a accordant advertence to this absorption from the activity of David, see 1 Samuel 26:19.
[lxvi] E.g., Matthew 7:21-22; Luke 24:34.
[lxvii] John 10:1-16.
[lxviii] B. Segal, New Psalm, p. 103.
[lxix] Ibid., p. 104.
[lxx] R. Alter, Psalms, p. 78 n. 3.
[lxxi] B. Segal, New Psalm, p. 104.
[lxxii] L. L. Baker et al., Who Shall Ascend, p. 625.
[lxxiii] For added on the agreement aisle through the temple, see, e.g., M. Douglas, Leviticus; D. Calabro, Joseph Smith and the Architecture; J. M. Bradshaw et al., By the Blood Ye Are Sanctified, pp. 144, 168.
[lxxiv] R. Alter, Psalms, p. 79 n. 4.
[lxxv] Ibid., p. 79 n. 4.
[lxxvi] The adverse amid the breadth of these two phrases is amplified in adjustment only. In Hebrew, their breadth is similar.
[lxxvii] R. Alter, Psalms, p. 79 n. 4.
[lxxviii] B. Segal, New Psalm, p. 104.
[lxxix] J. H. Eaton, Psalms Commentary, p. 124.
[lxxx] For added on the history and apologue of this meal, see J. M. Bradshaw et al., By the Blood Ye Are Sanctified, pp. 185-192; L. L. Baker et al., Who Shall Ascend, pp. 630-631. See additionally Canticle 22:25-29.
[lxxxi] See W. L. Holladay, Psalms, pp. 11-12. Cf. Matthew 5:44.
[lxxxii] C. S. Lewis, Psalms, p. 21.
[lxxxiii] W. L. Holladay, Psalms, p. 9.
[lxxxiv] J. H. Eaton, Psalms Commentary, p. 124.
[lxxxv] See J. M. Bradshaw, Temple Capacity in the Oath, pp. 59-65.
[lxxxvi] L. L. Baker et al., Who Shall Ascend, p. 631.
[lxxxvii] H. S. Kushner, Lord Is My Shepherd, pp. 132-134.
[lxxxviii] 2 Samuel 2:4. Although the verb for the aristocratic anointing is not the accepted one (d-sh-n rather than m-sh-ch), Rashi reads the byword as a apologue for kingship: “By Your decree I acquire already been all-powerful as king” (Rashi, Psalms, p. 264 n. 5b. Cf. J. H. Eaton, Psalms Commentary, p. 124).
[lxxxix] L. L. Baker et al., Who Shall Ascend, p. 632.
[xc] Cf. Malachi 3:10.
[xci] D. N. Freedman, Twenty-Third Psalm, p. 298, as cited in L. L. Baker et al., Who Shall Ascend, p. 633.
[xcii] Abroad depicted as the the seraphim — cf. Isaiah 6.
[xciii] J. H. Eaton, Psalms Commentary, p. 123. Cf. 2 Samuel 12:30.
[xciv] Ibid., p. 123.
[xcv] R. Alter, Psalms, p. 80 n. 6.
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